محدودیت‌های مؤثر بر رفتار سازگاری کشاورزان با کم‌آبی (مورد مطالعه: شهرستان شوشتر)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

تغییرات آب و هوایی تهدیدی برای امنیت آب، منابع آبی و دسترسی به آب­هاست و از این رو یکی از تهدیدات عمدۀ بخش کشاورزی تلقی می‌شود. کشاورزان توانایی متفاوتی برای اجرای استراتژی‌های سازگاری دارند و هزینه­های مالی و غیر مالی بر رفتار انسان تأثیر می‌گذارد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی عوامل محدودکننده مؤثر بر رفتار سازگاری کشاورزان شهرستان شوشتر در مواجهه با تغییرات آب و هوایی انجام شد. جامعۀ آماری این پژوهش کشاورزان شهرستان شوشتر بودند که 251 نفر از آن‌ها بر اساس جدول بارتلت به عنوان نمونۀ آماری انتخاب شدند. برای انتخاب نمونۀ مورد مطالعه از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی متناسب بهره گرفته شد. ابزار گرد‌آوری اطلاعات، پرسشنامه‌ای محقق‌ساخت بود که روایی صوری آن توسط متخصصان تأیید و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شد (73/0-43/0). نتایج نشان داد متغیرهای خطر درک‌شده و خودکارآمدی تأثیر مستقیم، مثبت و معنا‌داری بر حفاظت از خود داشته‌اند. همچنین حفاظت از خود، تأثیر مستقیم مثبت و معنا‌داری بر متغیر رفتار سازگاری داشت. می­توان استدلال کرد متغیرهای درک خطر و خودکارآمدی تأثیر غیر مستقیم معنا‌داری نیز بر رفتار سازگاری کشاورزان دارند. در مجموع مدل پیشنهادی تحقیق توانسته است 35 درصد از تغییر‌پذیری متغیر رفتار سازگاری را تبیین کند. بر اساس یافته­ها افزایش آگاهی و اطلاعات کشاورزان در زمینۀ شدت خطرات و آسیب­های کم‌آبی، روش‌های سازگاری به منظور آشنایی با سهولت اجرای روش­ها و در نتیجه افزایش خودکارآمدی افراد می­تواند بروز رفتار سازگاری را بهبود بخشد. .

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Constraints affecting the farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity (The Case of Shushtar County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Pakmehr 1
  • Masoud Yazdanpanah 2
  • Masoud Baradaran 2
1 M.Sc Student. Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Associate Professor., Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Climate change is a threat to water security, water resources and access to water, and thus considered as one of the major threat to the agricultural sector. Farmers have different ability to implement adaptation strategies and that pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs affect human behavior. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to climate change in Shushtar County. The population of interest consisted of farmers in Shushtar County. According to Bartlett table, a total of 251 farmers were estimated as a sample size. Random sampling was used to draw a sample of farmers from the study area. Data were collected through personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaires was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.43 to 0.73. The results showed that the variable of self-efficacy and risk perception have a direct and positive effect on the variable of adaptation behavior. The results showed that the variable of self-protection has a direct effect on the variable of adaptation behavior. The variables of risk perception and self-efficacy have an indirect effect on the variable of adaptation behavior. Collectively, the suggested model is capable predict 35 percent of the variability adaptation behavior.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate change
  • water scarcity
  • adaptation
  • farmers
  • Shushtar County
یزدان‌پناه، مسعود و زبیدی، طاهره (1396). باورها و درک خطر کشاورزان استان خوزستان نسبت به تغییرات آب و هوایی. مجله مخاطرات محیط طبیعی، دوره 6، شماره 14، 140- 123.

یزدان‌پناه، مسعود، زبیدی، طاهره و زائری، هاجر (1397). تبیین سازه‌های روانی مؤثر بر درک خطر مروجان و کارشناسان ترویج کشاورزی استان خوزستان نسبت به تغییرات آب و هوایی. جغرافیا و توسعه. سال 16، شماره 50، 212- 199.

آزادی، یوسف، یزدان پناه، مسعود، فروزانی، معصومه و محمودی، حسین (1396). ارزیابی رفتار سازگاری گندم کاران دیم شهرستان کرمانشاه در رویارویی با تغییرپذیری‌های آب و هوایی: کاربرد نظریه انگیزه حفاظت.  فصلنامه کشاورزی بوم‌شناختی. دوره 7، شماره 2، 106-94.

زبیدی، طاهره، مسعود یزدان پناه، فروزانی، معصومه و خسروی پور، بهمن (۱۳۹۵). نوع شناسی ادراکات کشاورزان گندم­کار و سبزی‌کار نسبت به تغییرات آب و هوایی با استفاده از روش‌شناسی کیو (مورد مطالعه: شهرستان حمیدیه خوزستان).  پژوهش‌هایروستایی، دوره ۷، شمارة  ۲، 3741-391.

یزدان‌پناه، مسعود، فروزانی، معصومه و زبیدی، طاهره (1396). تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر رفتار سازگاری کشاورزان در مقابله با تغییرات آب و هوایی: مورد مطالعه شهرستان باوی خوزستان. تحقیقات اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی ایران. دوره 48-2. شماره 1، 147-137.

 

Abid, M., Scheffran, J., Schneider, U. A., & Ashfaq, M (2015). Farmers' perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants: the case of Punjab province, Pakistan. Earth System Dynamics, 6(1), 225.

Aitken, C., Chapman, R., & McClure, J (2011). Climate change, powerlessness and the commons dilemma: Assessing New Zealanders’ preparedness to act. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 752-760.

Alam, K (2015). Farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity in drought-prone environments: A case study of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management, 148, 196-206.‏

Alemayehu, A., & Bewket, W (2017). Smallholder farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to climate change and variability in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Local Environment, 1-15.

Arbuckle Jr, J. G., Morton, L. W., & Hobbs, J (2015). Understanding farmer perspectives on climate change adaptation and mitigation: The roles of trust in sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, and perceived risk. Environment and Behavior, 47(2), 205-234.‏‏

Arbuckle Jr, J. G., Morton, L. W., and Hobbs, J (2013). Farmer beliefs and concerns about climate change and attitudes toward adaptation and mitigation: Evidence from Iowa. Climatic Change, 118(3-4), 551-563.

Ashraf, M., Routray, J. K., & Saeed, M (2014). Determinants of farmers’ choice of coping and adaptation measures to the drought hazard in northwest Balochistan, Pakistan. Natural hazards, 73(3), 1451-1473.

Babcicky, P., & Seebauer, S (2017). The two faces of social capital in private flood mitigation: Opposing effects on risk perception, self-efficacy and coping capacity. Journal of Risk Research, 20(8), 1017-1037.‏

Bockarjova, M., & Steg, L (2014). Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands. Global environmental change28, 276-288

Bradshaw, B., Dolan, H., & Smit, B (2004). Farm-level adaptation to climatic variability and change: crop diversification in the Canadian prairies. Climatic Change, 67(1), 119-141.

Chen, M. F (2015). Self-efficacy or collective efficacy within the cognitive theory of stress model: Which more effectively explains people's self-reported proenvironmental behavior?. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 66-75.

Chiu, W. H (2000). On the propensity to self-protect. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 555-577.

Cismaru, M., Cismaru, R., Ono, T., & Nelson, K (2011). “Act on Climate Change”: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory. Social Marketing Quarterly, 17(3), 62-84.‏

Dang, H., Li, E., & Bruwer, J (2012). Understanding Climate Change Adaptive Behaviour of Farmers: An Integrated Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts & Responses, 3(2).

Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global environmental change, 19(2), 248-255.

Dhanya, P., & Ramachandran, A (2016). Farmers' perceptions of climate change and the proposed agriculture adaptation strategies in a semiarid region of south India. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 1-18.

Doran, R., Hanss, D., & Larsen, S (2017). Intentions to make sustainable tourism choices: do value orientations, time perspective, and efficacy beliefs explain individual differences? Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(3), 223-238.

Feng, X., Liu, M., Huo, X., & Ma, W (2017). What Motivates Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change? The Case of Apple Farmers of Shaanxi in China. Sustainability, 9(4), 519.

Floyd, D. L., Prentice‐Dunn, S., & Rogers, R. W (2000). A meta‐analysis of research on protection motivation theory. Journal of applied social psychology, 30(2), 407-429.

Frick, J., Kaiser, F. G., & Wilson, M (2004). Environmental knowledge and conservation behavior: Exploring prevalence and structure in a representative sample. Personality and Individual differences, 37(8), 1597-1613.

Gandure, S., Walker, S., & Botha, J. J (2013). Farmers' perceptions of adaptation to climate change and water stress in a South African rural community. Environmental Development, 5, 39-53.

Gebrehiwot, T., & van der Veen, A. (2013). Farm level adaptation to climate change: the case of farmer’s in the Ethiopian Highlands. Environmental management, 52(1), 29-44.

Hall, N.(2017). What is adaptation to climate change? Epistemic ambiguity in the climate finance system. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 17(1), 37-53.

Homburg, A., & Stolberg, A (2006). Explaining pro-environmental behavior with a cognitive theory of stress. Journal of Environmental Psychology26(1), 1-14.

Hipp, J. R (2016). Collective efficacy: How is it conceptualized, how is it measured, and does it really matter for understanding perceived neighborhood crime and disorder?. Journal of criminal justice, 46, 32-44.

Islam, M. T., & Nursey-Bray, M (2017). Adaptation to climate change in agriculture in Bangladesh: The role of formal institutions. Journal of environmental management, 200, 347-358.

Iwata, O. (2002). Coping style and three psychological measures associated with environmentally responsible behavior. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 30(7), 661-669.‏

Karanja Ng’ang’a, S., Bulte, E. H., Giller, K. E., McIntire, J. M., & Rufino, M. C (2016). Migration and self-protection against climate change: a case study of Samburu County, Kenya. World Development, 84, 55-68.

Kuruppu, N., & Liverman, D (2011). Mental preparation for climate adaptation: The role of cognition and culture in enhancing adaptive capacity of water management in Kiribati. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 657-669.

Le Dang, H., Li, E., Nuberg, I., & Bruwer, J (2014). Farmers’ perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: A study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Environmental management, 54(2), 331-345.

Leiserowitz, A (2006). Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic change, 77(1-2), 45-72.

Leiserowitz, A. A (2003). Global warming in the American mind: the roles of affect, imagery, and worldviews in risk perception, policy preferences and behavior (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).

Li, S., Juhász-Horváth, L., Harrison, P. A., Pintér, L., and Rounsevell, M. D (2017). Relating farmer's perceptions of climate change risk to adaptation behaviour in Hungary. Journal of Environmental Management, 185, 21-30.

Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L (2007). Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. Global environmental change, 17(3), 445-459.

Malla, G (2009). Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 9, 62-71.

Mase, A. S., Gramig, B. M., & Prokopy, L. S (2017). Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern US crop farmers. Climate Risk Management, 15, 8-17.

Masud, M. M., Azam, M. N., Mohiuddin, M., Banna, H., Akhtar, R., Alam, A. F., & Begum, H (2017). Adaptation barriers and strategies towards climate change: Challenges in the agricultural sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 698-706.

Mekonnen, T )2017(. Willingness to pay for agricultural risk insurance as a strategy to adapt climate change (No. 028). United Nations University-Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).‏

Menapace, L., Colson, G., & Raffaeli, R (2014, August). Farmers' Climate Change Risk Perceptions: An Application of the Exchangeability Method. In EAAE 2014 Congress ‘Agri-Food and Rural Innovations for Healthier Societies’ August (Vol. 26).

Mercado, R. M (2016). People's Risk Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Natural Disasters in BASECO Compound, Manila, Philippines. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 34, 490-505.

Mesike, C. S., Ugwa, I. K., & Esekhade, T. U (2015). Adaptation to climate change among rubber farmers in delta state, Nigeria. History, 1(2), 98-104.

Milne, M., Stenekes, N., and Russell, J. (2008). Climate risk and industry adaptation. Australia: Bureau of Rural Sciences. Available at: <www.apo.org.au/node/3470>.

Mumpower, J. L., Liu, X., & Vedlitz, A (2016). Predictors of the perceived risk of climate change and preferred resource levels for climate change management programs. Journal of Risk Research, 19(6), 798-809.

O'Connor, R. E., Bard, R. J., & Fisher, A (1999). Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change. Risk analysis, 19(3), 461-471.

Otitoju, M. A., & Enete, A. A (2016). Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA). Cogent Food & Agriculture2(1), 1178692.

Pannell, D. J (2010, February). Policy for climate change adaptation in agriculture. In 54th Annual Conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society’. Adelaide (pp. 10-12).

Pittock, J., & Lankford, B. A (2010). Environmental water requirements: demand management in an era of water scarcity. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences7(1), 75-93.‏

Prokopy, Linda Stalker, Lois Wright Morton, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr, Amber Saylor Mase, and Adam K. Wilke (2015). "Agricultural stakeholder views on climate change: implications for conducting research and outreach." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96, no. 2 (2015): 181-190.

Rainear, A. M., & Christensen, J. L (2017). Protection motivation theory as an explanatory framework for proenvironmental behavioral intentions. Communication Research Reports, 34(3), 239-248.

Reser, J. P., Bradley, G. L., Glendon, A. I., Ellul, M. C., & Callaghan, R (2012). Public risk perceptions, understandings and responses to climate change in Australia and Great Britain. Gold Coast, Qld: Griffith Climate Change Response Adaptation Facility.‏

Roco, L., Poblete, D., Meza, F., & Kerrigan, G (2016). Farmers’ Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile. Environmental management58(6), 958-971.‏

Schewe, J., Heinke, J., Gerten, D., Haddeland, I., Arnell, N. W., Clark, D. B., ... & Gosling, S. N (2014). Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(9), 3245-3250.‏

Shikuku, K. M., Winowiecki, L., Twyman, J., Eitzinger, A., Perez, J. G., Mwongera, C., & Läderach, P (2017). Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 234-245.

Stoutenborough, J. W., & Vedlitz, A (2014). The effect of perceived and assessed knowledge of climate change on public policy concerns: an empirical comparison. Environmental Science & Policy, 37, 23-33.

Swe, L. M. M., Shrestha, R. P., Ebbers, T., & Jourdain, D (2015). Farmers' perception of and adaptation to climate-change impacts in the Dry Zone of Myanmar. Climate and Development, 7(5), 437-453.

Tripathi, A., & Mishra, A. K (2017). Knowledge and passive adaptation to climate change: An example from Indian farmers. Climate Risk Management16, 195-207.

Vignola, R., Klinsky, S., Tam, J., and McDaniels, T (2013). Public perception, knowledge and policy support for mitigation and adaption to climate change in Costa Rica: comparisons with North American and European studies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 18 (3), 303-323.‏

Wei, J., Hansen, A., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Liu, Q., Sun, Y., & Bi, P (2014). Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China. Environmental research, 134, 301-308.‏

Yazdanpanah, M., Thompson, M., Hayati, D., & Zamani, G. H (2013). A new enemy at the gate: Tackling Iran’s water super-crisis by way of a transition from government to governance. Progress in Development Studies13(3), 177-194.‏

Zamasiya, B., Nyikahadzoi, K., & Mukamuri, B. B )2017(. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones: A case study of Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. Journal of Environmental Management, 198, 233-239.‏

Zobeidi, T., Yazdanpanah, M., Forouzani, M., & Khosravipour, B (2016). Climate change discourse among Iranian farmers. Climatic change, 138(3-4), 521-535.